"…the ideology of machismo leads men into
believing that they have “a right” to abuse women psychologically,
physically and sexually for it is “natural male behaviour"
In Intersecting Violences, Patricia Muñoz suggests that intersectionality does not provide an analysis of the complexity of patriarchy and masculinities, as there are many subtle forms of subjugating women. However, many studies concur that, from a gender perspective, a root cause of VAW is the unequal power relations between women and men. This basic inequality or ‘patriarchy’ consolidates men’s political, economic and social dominance over women and is used to assert their masculinity and ensure continuing control over resources and decision-making in the household, the market and the State. Finding solutions can present political challenges as they need to address issues at the personal, societal and cultural levels.
There are different ways in which masculinities can be expressed within different societies, and these vary according to aspects of identity, such as class, race and sexuality. In some countries men have come together to question dominant ideals of masculinity (‘hegemonic masculinity’) and reject stereotypical masculine behaviour such as VAW. Men’s groups aim to show that although most men are not violent their collective silence has allowed VAW to continue. More and more men are taking a stance to get this message across and they are working with women’s organisations to fight against different forms of VAW. Many organisations recognise the importance of working with boys at an early age, to challenge and change unequal relations and violent behaviour, and with all young people to find new patterns of equitable relationships for future generations.
In this section we provide examples of two organisations
working in a holistic way to tackle VAW by focussing on masculinities,
age and inequality issues.
|Diversity and Social Exclusion||INSTITUTO PROMUNDO Brazil|